Drug and drug abuse exam 1

Drug and drug abuse exam 1
Milk and sugar
What are some of the common fillers added to heroin when a less potent dose than the standard street dose is sold?

What is the therapeutic index for a drug with an LD50 of 100 and an ED50 of 25?

Opioids, because of the Hugh number of reported deaths
Based on DAWN statistics tracking drug-related deaths, evaluate which drug is most toxic

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Acute toxicity; chronic toxicity
Whereas _____ refers to the harm a drug might present to the user immediately or soon after ingestion, ________ refers to the harm a drug might cause over a long period of use

High dose and unfamiliar enviroment
Which situation will most likely to lead to fatal overdose of heroin?

Juan is physically dependent, Carlos is psychologically dependent
Juan uses heroin to avoid feeling sick. Carlos uses cocaine because cocaine because he experiences strong craving for the pleasure able effects. How would you apply the models of dependence to their use?

Substance abuse and substance dependence have been merged into a single diagnosis
When comparing the previous version of the newly released DSM-5, what is most striking change to the DSM-5?

Heroin use during the final month of pregnancy
A pregnant women gives birth to premature child suffers from low birth weight, HIV infection, and dramatic withdrawal symptoms. Which is the most likely pattern of drug abuse?

Economically compulsive
Breaking into cars to steal radios and cell phones that can then be sold to have enough money for cocaine is an example of which type of drug-related violence?

Schedule I drugs have no accepted medical use, whereas schedule II drugs do have accepted medical use
What is the primary difference between Schedule I and Schedule II drugs?

Increase patrols on the border with Mexico
A policy makers is interested in decreasing the “supply” side of the drug-abuse equation. Which strategy would you recommend to reach that goal?

Dose-response curve
Which term shows the increasing probability of a certain drug effect as the dose level rises.

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Substance use disorder
In DSM-5, “failure to fulfill major obligations at work, school, or home” is one of the criteria for which disorder?

Which term refers to the capacity of a drug to produce a gradually diminished physical or psychological effect upon repeated administrators of the drug at the same dose level?

Needle-exchange program
Which of the following is an example of a harm-reduction strategy?

For the drug to be absorbed into the bloodstream
Irrespective of the method of intake, what is the goal of taking a drug in the first place?

Oral administration relies on the digestive system
What is the difference between oral and other routes of administration?

If a drug has an elimination half-life of one hour, what would be the drug concentration after 3 hours?

John has noticed that his medication does not work as well when he eats certain foods, including bran and oatmeal. Which drug does this describe?

Which element of the nervous system is active when we are prepared to fight of flee?

Cerebral cortex
Which portion of the brain is devoted to higher level information processing?

Axon transmits information, while the dendrites receive information
A key difference between axons and dendrites is that the

Decreased depression
Claire has been given a prescription drug that slows down the re uptake of serotonin. Which effect is most likely to occur once she starts taking the drug?

Research suggests that dopamine -related processes in the nucleus accumbens underlie the reinforcing effects of many drugs
Which statement provides the strongest support for the hypothesis that psychological dependence is related to activity in the brain?

The pharmacology of the drug will have a greater effect than the individual taking the drug of the environment
When an individual is given a high dose of a drug, which factors would you predict will have the greatest contribution to the overall drug effects?

Which method of administration involves placing a drug under the tongue?

Which nervous system response involves a voluntary reaction executed by skeletal muscles that are attached to bones?

Metabolic tolerance
Which term refers to a drug facilitating, over repeated administration, the processes that produce the drug’s bio transformation in the liver?

Which neurotransmitters is related to emotionality and motor control?

Neither the individual administering the substance nor the individual receiving it know if the substance is the actual drug being evaluated or a placebo
A researchers is designing a study and wants to protect against potential placebo effects. In order to do this she uses a double blind procedure, which means that

Intravenous injection (mainlining)
The drug is delivered into a vein without any intermediary tissue.

Intramuscular injection
The drug delivered into a drug muscle (usually upper arm,thigh,or buttock) and is absorbed into the bloodstream through the capillaries serving the muscle.

Subcutaneous injection (skin popping)
A needle is inserted into the tissue underneath the skin

Intranasal (snorting)
Once inside the nose, it adheres to thin mucous membranes and dissolves through the membranes into the bloodstream.

With the drug placed underneath the tongue and absorbed into the bloodstream

Transdermal patch
Allows a drug to slowly diffuse through the skin

The sequence of metabolic events leading to urinary excretion

Products of bio transformation

Elimination half-life
The amount of time it takes for the drug in the bloodstream to decline to 50 percent of its original concentration level.

The effect of one drug alone is equivalent to a 4, and the effect of another drug is a 6, then the combined effect is equivalent to a value of 10.

Any hyper additive effect produced by combination of two or more drugs

Special form synergism.

If the acute effect of one drug is diminished to sone degree when administered with another— a situation comparable to a drug with the effect of 6 and a drug with the effect of 4 combining to produce an effect of 3.

Hyper Additive
The combined effect exceeding the sum of the individual drugs administered alone, as in the two drugs

Cross- tolerance
Is commonly observed in the physiological and psychological effects of alcohol, barbiturates, and a class of anti-anxiety medications

Cross dependence
If the withdrawal symptoms of one drug are relieved by administering another drug , then the two drugs

Central nervous system
Brain and spinal cord

Peripheral nervous system
Includes the visual pathway, the auditory pathway, other channels of sensory information , motor pathways

Somatic response
Is voluntary reaction executed by skeletal muscles that are attached to bone.

Autonomic response
Is usually involuntary and executed by smooth muscles that form walls of arteries, veins, capillaries , and internal organs, cardiac muscles that for, the walls to heart.

Sympathetic activation
The heart relates goes up, blood pressure goes up , the bronchi in the lungs dilate to accommodate a greater amount of oxygen, the pupil dilates to allow more light into the eye, and other bodily systems alter their level of functioning

Parasympathetic activation
Heart rate goes down and blood pressure goes down, bronchi and pupils constrict, and the gastrointestinal tract is now excited rather than inhibited.

Determine when we sleep and when we wake up. Affects patterns of sleep

Controls sensory and motor reflexes and processing pain

Substance nigra (mid brain)
Interferes with the control of movements of our body.

Limbic system (forebrain)
Plays a central role in organizing emotional behavior during times of distress.

Cerebellum (hindbrain)
Movement, balance,coordination

Reticular formation (hindbrain)
Energizes brain to be alert to incoming info.

Cerebral cortex (forebrain)
Concerned with visual, auditory, and soma sensory info (touch) and complex and precise movements.

Once the nuerotransmitter binds to the receptor, it is simply expelled and transported in its intact form back synaptic knob

Acetylcholine (receptors: muscarinic and nicotinic)
First molecule to have been firmly established as a neurotransmitter.

Is concentrated in the hypothalamus and limbic system but also found throughout the brain.

Affects three aspects of behavior : motor control, emotionality (schizophrenia) , compulsive drug taking

Concentrated in pons and medulla , cortex, limbic system. Important role in regulating sleep.

Inhibitory neurotransmitter. Release of neurons provides reduction of stress and fear (deficiencies associated with increased tendency to suffer epileptic seizures)

Excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain causing neurons to be more active.

Act as natural brain produced painkillers

Blood brain barrier
A barrier that restricts the passage of drugs and other molecules from blood stream to the brain

Metabolic (dis positional) tolerance
A drug may facilitate over repeated administrations, the processes that produce the drugs biotransformation.

Cellular pharmacodynamic tolerance
Changes occur in the synapses of. Herons themselves

Nucleus accumbens
The rewarding effect of these psychoactive drugs dopamine and grouping of neurons ,young in a region of the limbic system.

Placebo effect
Physical reaction of placebo (inactive substance)